Suicide by poisoning in Pakistan: summary of regional styles, toxicity and managing popular representatives during the past three decades

Suicide by poisoning in Pakistan: summary of regional styles, toxicity and managing popular representatives during the past three decades

Maria Safdar

Section of Forensic Medicine, Postgraduate Hospital Institute, Pakistan

Khalid Imran Afzal

Office of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, school of Chicago, Illinois, American

Zoe Black

Division of Therapy, Loyola Institution, Illinois, UNITED STATE

Filza Ali

Office of Forensic Medicine, CMH Multan Institute of Hospital Sciences, Pakistan

Pervaiz Zarif

Section of Forensic Medicine, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Pakistan

Zahid Farooq Baig

Division of Therapy, CMH Lahore hospital College and Institute of Dentistry, Pakistan

Corresponding Data

The writers confirm that the info giving support to the finding with this research can be obtained within your write-up.



Committing suicide considered lead psychological crises and takes one lives every 40 a few seconds. Four out of each and every five suicides take place in reasonable- and middle-income countries. Despite religion being a protective aspect against committing suicide, the probable amount of suicides is actually fast growing in Pakistan.

Our analysis centers around the styles of suicide and method of self-poisoning in earlier times three years, and managing commonly used toxins.


All of us looked two electric sources (PubMed and PakMediNet) for printed English-language reports outlining agents employed for committing suicide in almost any elements of Pakistan. All in all, 46 considering 85 papers (letter = 54 747 situations) found all of our introduction element.


Suicidal thinking is prevalent among anyone young than 30 years. Females composed 60 percent of those that tried self-destruction within learn example, even though relation of finalized suicides favoured men. There were local fashions when you look at the number of broker for overdose. Organophosphate accumulation was actually reported within the world, with a predominance of covers within the agricultural strip of Southward Punjab and inside Sindh. Aluminum phosphide (a€?wheat pillsa€™) was a chosen rep in North Punjab, whereas paraphenylenediamine (a€?kala pathara€™) is implicated in fatalities by suicide from to the south Punjab. Urban areas experienced various other way for self-destruction, such as household components, benzodiazepines, kerosene oil and rodent poison.


Important steps are expected, including psychoeducational promotions on mental health and self-destruction, associate practise, medical budget for fast remedy for self-poisoning and up-to-date governmental approach to modify pesticide income.

Suicide might be next trusted factor in dying in 15- to 29-year-olds around the globe, and 10- to 34-year-olds in america. 1 , 2 society overall health group (WHO) estimates that 800 000 visitors perish by self-destruction every year, which could result in one dying every 40 a few seconds, and 79percent of international suicides take place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). 3 the planet Bank Atlas defines low-income region as creating a gross national revenues (GNI) per capita of $1025 or a lesser amount of in 2018, and lower-middle-income nations as possessing a GNI per capita of $1026a€“$3995. 4 Although pesticide intake, hanging and guns are probably the most typical types of self-destruction around the globe, 1 trends range between places in connection with the age ranges, availability and accessibility to the way. 5 a€“ 8 Mirroring international studies, the three popular options for suicides in Pakistan include poisoning, weapons and dangling. 9 , 10


Pakistan will be the 5th a large number of populated region globally. 11 it’s principally an agricultural state and, as per the 2017 National Census, around 64% of the society of 207 million is rural. 12 , 13 the people relation favours males (51.23percent), with a male:female rate of 1.05. 12 About 50% on the inhabitants is definitely under two decades old, and 35% are under 10 years of age. The literacy price of Pakistan, as measured from the capability consumers outdated a‰?15 a very long time to read through and create, is approximately 59%, that’s a lot less than the typical literacy rates some other South Asian countries (71.70percent) for LMICs overall (75percent). 14 Guy posses a literacy price of 71%, whereas women posses a literacy speed of 12 , 14 , 15 The literacy price in big metropolitan centers like Karachi and Lahore, each biggest locations in the nation, is nearly 75per cent, whereas the average literacy price in outlying parts happens to be 16 Along with other elements, terrorism has badly impacted received economic growth in Pakistan over the past two decades, leading to a very high jobless fee. Medical signals of the nation still continue to be inadequate. 17 a€“ 20